Friday, May 24, 2019

what is Climate Change (Definition, Causes,Effects,Actions and solutions )

Climate change is natural. Climate is the weather condition of a particular region.During the 20th century the global temperature has increased to about 0.60°C.

what is Climate Change 

Climate change is two words that you will often hear about these days. Why is there so much talk on this subject? Climate change has taken the form of an international problem. It not only effects Developing Countries but all the countries of the world are suffering From Climate change. How is this a matter of concern for us? Let us discuss the causes, effects, actions and solutions of climate change.

Earth's Climate change
Earth's Climate change 

What is the climate?


According to a proverb, the climate is what you expect; The weather is that which we get. We often do not differentiate the word 'climate' and 'weather'.

What is Difference between "Weather and Climate"


 The weather is that which is shown on TV every night as maximum and minimum temperature at various places, cloud and air conditions, rainfall forecast, humidity etc. The change in the external atmospheric conditions at some place at a given time, is called  the weather.

 On The Other Hand Side, Climate is the weather condition of a particular region.
Climate scientists consider the weather information of at least 30 years as necessary to detect the climate of a particular place. Climate shows us how a place is. For example, the climate of Ahmedabad and Delhi is generally dry; In contrast, the climate is humid in Mumbai and Visakhapatnam; The climate of Bangalore and Pune is pleasant.

What is Climate Change ?



The world is much warmer than at any time of the last 2000 years.  During the 20th century the global temperature has increased to about 0.60°C. According to NASA: April 2019 was the 2nd warmest on record globally, behind 2016: +0.99°C above the 1951-1980 average. 


hottest year 2016 due to climate change
hottest year 2016 due to climate change 



More than 4°C above normal in parts of Greenland, North of Norway, and in NE-Siberia. 

 Changes in weather can take place in a short time.  It can be rainy for one hour and after that it can also get strong sunlight. Climate can also change.

Climate change is natural and the climate of the Earth has been changing.  The change in the past took a long time to happen, but the rate of change at present is quite fast and as a result of these changes the earth is getting warmer.

 Facts about Climate change 


  • Methane is a Powerful greenhouse gas which is responsible for 25% of current global warming.
  • The most abundant Greenhouse Gas , accounting for about two-thirds of Greenhouse Gas's, is carbon dioxide (CO2), is largely the product of burning fossil fuels.
  • Presently the earth is getting hotter three times faster than the 1970s.
  • For the past 100 years, the average temperature of Antarctica is increasing twice the temperature of the Earth's average. Antarctica has reduced the snow covered area by 7 percent, while the seasonal decrease has increased by 15 percent.
  • NASA and NOAA data show that global averages in 2016(hottest year) were 1.78 degrees F (0.99 degrees C) warmer than the mid-20th century average.


Main Greenhouse Gases 


Earth's atmosphere is composed of many gases including some greenhouse gases. Greenhouse is a layer of gases that contains carbon dioxide (CO2), methane(CH4) and Nitrous oxide (N2O). 


Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect
Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect 


1). Methane 

Methane is a Powerful greenhouse gas which is responsible for 25% of current global warming. 
Methane is produced through natural and human activities. For example,agricultural activities, and fossil fuel extraction and transport all emit CH4The oil and gas sector is the largest industrial source of methane emission.

2). Carbon Dioxide 

CO2 is a primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to recent climate change.CO2 is absorbed and emitted naturally as part of the carbon cycle, through plant and animal respiration, volcanic eruptions, and ocean-atmosphere exchange.

Scientists have found that since the industrial revolution, the amount of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is increasing very much. In the past 100 years the world temperature has increased at least 0.85 degree Celsius (1.53 degrees Fahrenheit). Not only this, the sea level has increased by 20 centimeters (8 in).
Approximately 280 parts per million by volume (ppm) in the 18th century to over 415 ppm in 2019. 

you can also check  weekly CO2 report 



Atmospheric CO2 weekly average report 2019 compares with 2009 data
Atmospheric CO2 weekly average report 2019 compares with 2009 data  by Mauna Loa observatory 

3). Nitrous Oxide -

  Nitrous oxide greenhouse gas produced by soil cultivation practices, especially the use of commercial and organic fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production, and natural biological processes. N2O concentrations have increased more rapidly during the past century.


What is the relation between greenhouse gases and climate change?


As we know, the earth is the only planet on which life is possible. The favorable temperature on the surface of the Earth is an important factor in the presence of life, the average surface temperature of the earth is 14.40°C. 

The average surface temperature of Venus is 4490°C and Mars -550°C. These are our closest neighboring planets. Because of the presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the temperature of the earth is favorable for life. These air absorbs some heat released from the sun's light and keep them close to the surface of the Earth. This natural process is called 'greenhouse effect'.


'greenhouse effect process
'greenhouse effect' process



But too much amounts of greenhouse gases can cause problems. As the volume of these increases, the quantity of heat on the earth surface also increases, resulting in 'global warming'. Because of this kind of earth warming, climate change.

For example, scientists believe that if we continue to emit carbon dioxide at this rate, then this level of air will double before the industrial revolution. As a result, by the year 2050, the average temperature of Earth will rise to 5.80°C. Although this increase may seem less noticeable, but its results will be universal.




Carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate change


CO2 is both a pollutant and the natural part of the atmosphere. At present, 380 molecules per million molecules in the air are CO2 (380ppm). Its volume of emissions is growing at a rate of one percent per annum. The amount of CO2 before the Industrial Revolution was 270-280 ppm.
Approximately 280 parts per million by volume (ppm) in the 18th century to over 415 ppm in 2019

CO2 is responsible for more than 55% of the greenhouse gases caused by human activities for the current global warming. The life span of CO2 molecules is longer and they last for about 200 years in the atmosphere.



Causes of climate change


Over the years, heavy changes have been observed in the natural climate. The two main causes of climate change are natural and man made.

Natural causes of climate change- 

There are several natural causes of climate change such as the erosion of continents, volcanoes, and the earth's rotation.

1. Earth's inclination

This titled position of the earth axis is known as inclination.Earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees in its orbit. Changes in its inclination changes  the order of the weather. More inclination means more heat and more cold and less inclination mean less heat and less cold.

2 .volcanic eruptions

When volcanic eruption* occurs, it emits sulfur dioxide, water, dust and ash particles in the atmosphere in large amounts. Although volcano only works for a few days, but during this time the excessive amount of gases can affect the climate for a long time.

volcanic eruptions-- volcano is a mountain from which hot melted rock, gas, steam, and ash comes out  from inside when the Earth sometimes burst.


Man made causes of climate change-


1. Greenhouse gases

Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, are mainly responsible for climate change. These include high emission carbon dioxide.

Power plants use large amounts of fossil fuels (like coal) for power generation. All of this produce large amounts of CO2. It is believed that 20% of the CO2 emitted worldwide due to the gasoline engine engaged in vehicles.

 Apart from this, 3 billion people continue to use solid fuels* and open fires for cooking,heating and lighting. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted in them is very high.

{solid fuel}*
                - Solid Fuel refers to various forms of physical materials that can be burned to mix energy, heat and light can be provided through the combustion process. ... Common examples of solar fuel include timber, charcoal, peat, coal, wood summer, corn, wheat, mustard and other grains.



Sources of greenhouse gas emissions


  • Deforestation
  • Use of non-biodegradable substances such as plastic
  • Use of more fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture
  • power station
  • Industrial factories
  • Vehicles and trains
  • Farming Products: Insecticide, pesticides 
  • Fossil fuels (coal and petrol)
  • domestic waste
  • Burning of biomass
  • Burning of garbage


Effects of climate change


1.Rise in Sea Level 

Major consequence of climate change is the increase in sea level.Global sea levels could rise more than two meters (6.6 feet) by the end of this century if emissions continue unchecked new report tells us that sea levels may rise much faster than previously estimated due to the accelerating melting of ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica.

 The melting of the glaciers is being speculated that within half a century the water level of the ocean will increase to about half a meter. Wasting of coastal areas, floods, soil erosion, rise in saline water, etc. will lead to many adverse consequences.

2. Effect on agriculture 

The population of developing countries is increased day by day so the demand of food is also increases. climate change has direct effect on agriculture such as change in temperature , rainfall etc.
Soil erosion is increases due to the rising incidents of floods. Apart from its effect on crop yields, many species have disappeared due to climate change.

3. change in weather 

Climate change has seen a lot of changes in the weather. Unexplained rainfall in many places in India, or overheating that has a very bad effect on crops and animals.Just recently, the arrival of "fanny" cyclone in Orissa is due to all the climate change.


Solution of  climate change

  1. Trees and forests should be saved and more plantation should be done.
  2. Materials like non-biodegradable plastic, should not be used. must Ban on single use plastic.
  3. The more cars on the road, the higher the emission of greenhouse gases. use public transport wherever possible. Walk for a short distance trip or use bicycles. commuters must use carpooling for same office, school etc.
  4. save power (Electricity) --Whenever we use electricity, then electric gadgets emit  the greenhouse gases in the air. By cutting off the lights, equipment, TVs, computers etc. when not in use, we can significantly reduce this emission.
  5. use LPG connection in homes for cooking. solid fuel emit harmful gases in environment.

Read more what is Air pollution ,causes and solutions


School strike for climate Lead by Greta Thunberg 

Greta Thunberg(school girl climate change worrier)
Greta Thunberg(school girl climate change worrier)

Greta Thunberg(school girl climate change worrier), the 16-year-old Swedish student whose solo protest last August prompted the global movement, said: “We proved that it does matter what you do and that no one is too small to make a difference.”
need to take strict steps against climate change 
on 24,may 2019, schoolchildren will be out on the streets again,in 150 countries, at over 4,000 events, demanding that governments immediately provide a safe pathway to stay within 1.5C of global heating.
For more details click here

School students protest against the climate crisis in Melbourne, May 2019.
 School students protest against the climate crisis in Melbourne, May 2019.

Appreciate steps taken by countries for climate change 


  • UK and Ireland declare 'climate emergency' 
  • Plastic straws, drink stirrers and cotton buds with plastic stems will be banned from sale and use in England from April 2020.

Conclusion 

Due to the problem of climate change in the world, the threat is increasing. The melting ice in the Arctic, gliding glaciers, the flow of severe storms is telling us that we are going through the 'weather change' phase. The point of note is that its impact will not only affect coastal areas but it will be everywhere. It is believed that due to this the moisture will increase in the tropical desert. There will never be any heat in the plains, due to which various types of fatal diseases will arise.

Earth is the only planet in the universe where life has originated, but due to excessive pollution emissions and the exploitation of natural resources it is facing an imminent crisis of existence. In such a situation, the whole world is considering environmental protection to save human life and natural resources. We have to keep in mind that we do not resent nature so much that it is compelled to end our existence. We should respect him and take care of him, then he will take care of us.

Thank you!!

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elonjeevan

Author & Editor

ex science student

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